Good nutrition is essential for the health of the mother but also for the baby and an adult. Dietary advice will be most effective they will be applied early in pregnancy.
Pregnancy is accompanied by profound changes fetal development and adaptations of the body of the mother for certain changes of nutritional needs.
However, pregnant women should not eat for two; she needs to eat twice as well.
The diet should be mostly balanced. There is no weight gain optimal valid for all women in women of normal weight, an extra 100 kilocalories per day in the first quarter 250 kilocalories per day during the 2nd and 3rd quarter.
This is equivalent to taking a daily fruit or a glass of milk and more at the beginning of pregnancy, and two (or bread, a serving of cheese and fruit) during a snack late in pregnancy.
While the dangers of obesity are now recognized, experts also warn against the risks of too little weight gain.
You need a balance.
Excess weight increases the real risk of complications, whether the mother or child. Cesarean delivery is more common.
The nutritional objective is then to limit the weight gain 6-10 kg for the entire pregnancy without the contribution is less than 1600 kilocalories per day.
A thin or lean body mass raises the risk of premature labor, fetal growth retardation and small birth weight (less than 2.5 kg).
The optimal weight gain is between 11.5 and 16 kg for a woman of a medium build and 12.5 to 18 kgs for women leaner.
From a qualitative standpoint, the need for nutrients such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are exactly the same before and during pregnancy.
On protein, intake should be 70 g per day. (Apart from a vegetarian diet, all women in France have enough).
On carbohydrates, the interest of complex sugars (rice, pasta, potatoes) should be stressed at the expense of simple carbohydrates during pregnancy, the body less resistant to the young, which imposes a carbohydrate breakfast.
The soluble and insoluble plant fibers must be present in the diet to ensure adequate maternal blood glucose.
Unless weight problems, pregnant women do not have to limit their consumption of fats. Lipids provide essential vitamins, including the fetus. Non-skimmed milk products, provide 40% of recommended vitamin A during pregnancy. And fats contain essential fatty acids necessary for the formation and functioning of the brain membranes of the fetus.
You have to vary the sources of fats: butter on bread and oils (sunflower, corn, peanut, olive, soybean, rapeseed ...) in salads.
As for beverages, it is advisable to drink about 1.5 to two liters of water per day early in pregnancy.
Water is essential for the proper development of the fetus (amniotic fluid formation) and helps prevent kidney problems and constipation in the mother. (Preferably Drinking mineral water in small amounts throughout the day)
Avoid alcohol and soft drinks.
Need's folic acid (vitamin B9) is also increasing. The consumption of raw vegetables, vegetables (spinach, lettuce, cabbage) and fresh fruit, in principle, allows to cover its increased needs.
Some women are at risk of deficiency, particularly smokers and women taking oral contraceptives before pregnancy.
The recommended dose if supplementation is 5 mg per day.
The absorption of iron is four to five times higher among pregnant women the iron content in offal, red meat, pulses and green vegetables.
An intake of vitamin D is recommended during the seventh month of pregnancy to reduce the risk of anemia in calcium at birth.
Rules to follow
- Never skip meals
- To diversify its supply by tapping into each class of food:
- Do not nibble of greasy or sweet between meals. - Drinking water (about 1.5 to two liters per day), limiting alcohol, quitting smoking.
- Exercise (walking, swimming)
How to cover the calcium requirements?
The recommended dietary calcium is 1200 mg / l.
For example: 300 mg of calcium are made by a bowl of milk or yogurt or two 300 g or 30 g cheese Emmental.
How to relieve nausea?
If they appear upon awakening, take a solid breakfast in bed a glass of water or milk in an hour, depending on tolerance. A glass of coca may also help.
Should we eat more?
A little, but not too much: additional 100 kcal per day are needed in Q1 (a glass of milk or fruit). It is especially important to eat more balanced.
What cons bloating and heartburn?
Decrease the volume of main meals and split flows. Avoid foods, which ferment. Do not lie down immediately after a meal. Remove acidic foods and dishes too spicy.
What should I do to relieve constipation?
Drink at least 1.5 liters of water daily walk eating enough food rich in fiber. Drink a glass of cold water after an overnight fast.