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What is Acne

Acne is a skin disease caused by inflammation of hair follicles (pores where a hair) and sebaceous glands (see the image of the structure of the skin ).

Who is affected?


It is a very common condition. About 80% of teenagers are concerned, mostly male, 10% requiring medical care and 1% of them undergoing therapeutic disorders. However, it can be found at all ages: newborns, prepubertal children and adults (mostly in women at this time) may be affected.

A rare complication exists, however: Acne rheumatism which affects the insertion points epiphysaria tendons, ligaments and joint capsules, which causes destruction of bone at the insertion points generally followed by ankylosis of the joint due to calcification of ligaments. This acne treatment justifies the background. Acne usually develops in specific areas like the face, back or chest.

Description of acne.

The sebaceous glands produce sebum, an oily substance that gives elasticity to the skin. If oil production is too high, the pores become clogged. Comedones and microcysts are formed. When closed, they are called whiteheads. When skin pores are open, comedones become black due to oxidation of sebum on contact with air. These are the famous spots. This type of mild to moderate acne, non-inflammatory, can be cured by local treatment. It happens that some anaerobic bacteria (not supporting oxygen), normally present in hair follicles, multiply abnormally. It then triggers inflammation, and blackheads develop into papules (1-4 mm) or pustules (pimples containing pus). If the inflammation worsens, these pustules can develop into nodules or cysts, serious inflammatory lesions. This is a moderate to severe acne and inflammation that can leave scars, microcrateres; scars raised or at worst a pockmarked appearance.
Acne is not contagious.

Structure of the skin:

The causes of acne.

Research shows that acne is directly related to heredity and adolescence. Indeed, this disease mainly affects adolescents and young adults up to age 25. Acne can last from 3 to five years.

Hormonal causes:

It is known that androgens (sex hormones) play a role in the development of acne because they increase the secretion of sebum. During adolescence, boys are often more severely affected than females because they produce 10 times more androgens. By contrast to adulthood, women have acne breakouts eventually occur cyclically, depending on the time of the menstrual cycle, and some birth control pills can cause. Steroid use (to increase muscle mass) is also a risk factor.

The use of cosmetics:

Some cosmetics aggravate or cause acne because they are comedogenic (favor the appearance of blackheads): soap, shaving the hair oil, excessive use of soaps and disinfectants, greasy creams. Above all, we need to clean the skin with soap or acid lotion and sun avoidance. The boys should shave the electric razor station to the myth! Neither chocolate nor french fries, sweets or cakes do not cause acne. There is no need to starve yourself!

The characteristics of the skin:

Besides hormones, it seems that the essential factor is the thickness of the skin. The more the skin is thin, less likely to clog pores. All that is irritating helps thicken the skin and therefore, promotes blackheads and acne: the sun, sweat, chlorine, and cleanings' strippers too. The sun is particularly treacherous because it improves temporarily the appearance of the skin. However, after the holidays, the buttons are multiplying! Indeed, if the UV rays have an anti-inflammatory thickening of the stratum corneum causes a pop deeper comedones and microcysts resulting in the recurrence of problems as soon as the top layer of skin thins.

The treatment of acne.

All medical treatments require several weeks or months before giving results. They only work if used regularly. In case of minor acne, topical therapy is considered. In cases of acne average, resistant to local treatment or severe, a systemic treatment is then adopted.

Topically (when acnelegere to moderate):

They are used in the case of non-inflammatory acne and fight against the formation of comedones by normalizing follicular hyperkeratosis. Treatment duration varies from 3 to five months, beginning with the risk of escalation; however, we see an improvement after six weeks of tretinoin Traitement in part, it speeds up the renewal of skin cells. Quite irritating, this treatment requires patience to be able to find the right dosage. Several months are needed before a complete result. It also has a smoothing effect wrinkle!

The antibacterial premises:

They do not fight against blackheads and are therefore, inactive on non-inflammatory acne. They are mainly used in mild to moderate inflammatory acne. The improvement occurs within 3 to four weeks. However, we can extend the treatment beyond 4 to six months to avoid bacterial resistance referred. The topical antibiotics like clindamycin, erythromycin reduced bacterial infection.

Benzoyl peroxide:
It penetrates deeply into the skin and kills bacteria that cause acne. It dries and reduces the thickness of the skin, releasing the blocked follicles. However, it is very irritating and makes peeling. It is better to choose the lowest dose (2.5%) to be as effective against bacteria but less irritating. Attention, we must let it dry before getting dressed, this product whitens clothes.

Salicylic acid:
when benzoyl peroxide is poorly supported, it is an attractive alternative. This product does not attack the bacteria, but it thins the thickness of the epidermis and helps deep clean pores.

Systemically (in case of moderate to severe acne)

Oral antibiotics:
They work during the inflammatory phase of acne; they inhibit the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, bacterial lipases and reduce the concentration of free fatty acids. One can cite in this category tetracycline, erythromycin and minocycline. The treatment duration is at least three months.

In very severe cases of acne, this product has transformed the lives of much acne. Known under the name Accutane ©, its action is spectacular and rule 80% of cases in six months. Sebum production, the formation of blackheads and bacteria growth are reduced in the first weeks of treatment although highly effective, dermatologist does prescribe it only after the failure of antibiotic treatment because of side effects: Pregnancy is strictly prohibited throughout the treatment because isotr├ętino├»de causes severe abnormalities in the fetus. It can also cause dryness of the lips, skin and eyes, joint pain and headaches. These side effects are reversible upon discontinuation of treatment.